The Holy Anointing oil, or the Shemen Ha’Mishchah (שמן המשחה), formed an integral part of the Old Testament ritual in the ordination of the priesthood as well as in the consecration of the articles of the Tabernacle. The primary purpose of anointing with the holy anointing oil was to cause the anointed persons or objects to become ha’kodesh – most holy.
Originally the oil was used exclusively for the priesthood and the Tabernacle articles but was later extended to include prophets and kings. It was forbidden to be used on an outsider or to be used as an emollient on the body of any common persons  and the children of Israel were forbidden to duplicate any like it for themselves.
- Pure Myrrh, מר דרור mar deror, 500 shekels (about 6 kg)
- Sweet Cinnamon, קנמן בשם kinnemon besem, 250 shekels (about 3 kg)
- Sweet Calamus, or Sweet cane, קנה בשם keneh bosem, 250 shekels (about 3 kg)
- Cassia, קדה kiddah, 500 shekels (about 6 kg)
- Olive oil, שמן זית shemen sayith, one hin (about 5 quarts according to Adam Clarke; about 4 L according toShiurei Torah, 7 L according to the Chazon Ish)
The oil was used to anoint the vessels of the Tabernacle and the High Priest. It is traditionally regarded as the oil used by prophets to anoint Saul, David, and other kings of ancient Israel as well as to anoint the prophets themselves.
In modern western societies odors such as the stench of dead bodies, feces, and sweat are largely eradicated. The olfactory organ is much less depended on for survival than are those of sight and hearing.  The Old Testament Israelite way of life came from a cultural environment in which the sense of smell was highly depended on for survival and was highly esteemed. It contributed to the ability of man to orientate himself and to find his way in a world where life and death were permanently struggling. Where stench arose, he diagnosed the presence of disease, decay, rotting processes and death (Ex vii, 18) and where pleasant aromas existed were places biologically clean and conducive to habitation and/or food production and harvesting. Spices and oils were chosen which assisted man in orientating himself and in creating a sense of safety as well as as a sense of elevation above the physical world of decay. The sense of smell was also considered highly esteemed by deity. In Deut. iv 28 and Psalms cxv 5-6 the sense of smell is included in connection with the polemics against idols. An anthropomorphic Old Testament conception of Yahweh takes pleasure in inhaling the soothing odor (reah hannihoah) of offerings (Gen. viii 21; Ex. xxix 18; 1 Sam. xxvi 19; Lev. xxvi 31; Amos verse 21).  The ancient Egyptians used scented anointing oils when coronating the Pharaohs. They usually used fats from animals depicting strength and courage. To the ancient Israelite there was no oil or fat with more symbolic meaning than olive oil. It was used as an emollient, a fuel for keeping their lamps lit, as a food, and for many other purposes. The first mention of the olive tree in the Torah appeared in the book of Genesis after the global flood when the dove carries an olive branch in its beak announcing that the destruction of the sinful world was complete and that the new world had emerged. It was scented olive oil which was chosen to represent a holy anointing oil for the Israelites. The symbolism of the components in the holy anointing oil are no longer completely known but, as the other articles in the mishkan, had great meaning to the early Israelites. It is believed that the Ha’Mishchah has spiritual connections with the Ha’Ketoret.
Some believe in the continuity factor relative to the Holy Anointing Oil.
Customs utilizing the continuity factor is found in many of the world’s religions. Early Jewish rabbi’s stressed the importance of the succession of classical semikhah . The Catholic Church emphasized the importance of Apostolic succession, the continuity of laying on of hands for ordination, in an unbroken chain.
One Jewish tradition teaches that the ashes of the last red heifer sacrificed were always mixed with the ashes of each new red heifer  The Temple Institute states, “Some opinions maintain that the newer ashes were always mixed together with a combination of the previous ashes. One way of understanding this, is to the view this mixture of old and new ashes as being yet another precautionary measure . . . Additionally, mixing in the newer ashes we have produced now with those from olden times is a way of connecting through time with the original heifer that was slaughtered and prepared by Moses. As such, in a sense, it is a way of connecting with the level of Moses himself.”  Since the last succession of ashes  of the red heifer were either hidden or lost after70 AD  certain groups today are searching for the original ashes by following the map on the Copper Scroll that purports to tell the location, so that the old ashes can be added to the new, thus continuing the continuity factor.
Some Jewish people remove a small piece of the sourdough challah and give it away to someone else as a challah starter. In one Jewish custom a portion of the challah is set aside (refrigerated) until the making of new challah when the old is added to the new (however this is not the piece of challah which according to traditional Jewish law, may not be eaten, and must thus be destroyed in a dignified manner). The Churches of the East keep back a portion of their liturgical bread, called the Holy Malka, and when new bread is made the old is added to the new. It is claimed this continuity reaches back to the original loaf used by Christ and his disciples at the last supper. They also add a portion of the old anointing oil to the newly made anointing oil to establish a continuity of the oil, believed to reach back to the early disciples (see section below).
It is recorded in Exodus 30:31 “And thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel, saying, This shall be an holy anointing oil unto me throughout your generations.”  Commenting on this verse Rashi quotes a teaching of the Sages [Horiyos 11b] that the original Shemen HaMishcha that Moses made, to anoint the priesthood and the tabernacle furnishings, would remain intact in its entirety into the distant future (l’asid lavoh). When the Temple was to be rebuilt they would then need that very same Holy Anointing Oil to anoint the priests prior to their service in the Third Temple as well as to anoint the furnishings of the mishkin. It is obvious that such a small quantity of oil (around a gallon) would not last that long. It is claimed that one juglet of oil lasted over 800 years. To explain this discrepancy it is claimed that one of two things occurred: Either the container of Holy Anointing Oil miraculously multiplied when supply became low (as did the cruise of oil mentioned in the story of Elijah and the widow woman as well as the miracle at the time of the Chanukah story of the oil that lasted for eight days without being consumed) or, following the custom of the continuity factor, new oil was added to the old, thus continuing the original oil for all time. The question arises if the original Holy Anointing oil, or it’s descendent substance, is no longer available then how will the priesthood and the tabernacle be sanctified holy? The answer would be to locate some of the original Holy Anointing Oil or it’s descendant substance.
The search for this oil has led some to follow the map of the copper scroll (see section below). Olive oil residues may last countless centuries. A glass flask from before or during the life of Christ was unearthed in Israel and it still bears the residue of the olive oil it once contained. The residue is still easily identifiable. The residue from an olive press in Karanis, Egypt was determined by scientific analysis to be olive oil residue. For many years, this olive residue was thought to be bread, until scientific analysis determined its true nature. A combined gas chromatography-electron ionization , atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, mass spectrometry and MS/MS approach has been used for characterizing organic residues of ceramic vessels from a vault in a 13th century church in Sant’Antimo in Piombino. The data showed organic markers of vegetable residues.  Cream of tartar, a byproduct of wine-making, was found as a residue in ancient jugs found in Iran indicating that wine has been existent for c 7,000 years.  In 2005 a Greek and American interdisciplinary team investigated two shipwrecks off the coast of Chios dating to the 4th-century B.C. The project pioneered archaeological methods of precision acoustic, digital imaging, and chemical analysis. Chemical and molecular biological analysis of two amphoras from the 4th-century wreck revealed ancient DNA of olive oil which was part of a cargo, among other substances, outbound from Chios.  A team from Bonn University’s Egyptian Museum is studying the residue of a perfume belonging to the ancient Egyptian Queen, Pharaoh Hatshepsut. The team is trying to recreate the scent worn by the Pharaoh, who ruled Egypt in the 15th century B.C., by using the dried-out remnants of a scented oil found in a metal jar in her tomb. The modern scientific achievements in discovering such ancient residues which have survived the ravages of time presents the possibility that a portion of the HaMishchah may have survived in some manner. Some believe it can be found and have searched for it. One search for the Holy Anointing Oil, and the treasures of the copper scroll, purportedly led to the archaeological discovery of the Juglet of Qumran.
The Juglet of Qumran
The Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered in Qumran in 1947. Over 900 ancient documents written on parchment and papyrus were carefully preserved and buried in sealed vessels. Written between 150 BC and 70 AD the discovered treasures included the oldest known surviving copies of Biblical and extra-Biblical documents, making it one of the most sensational archeological discoveries in centuries. Whether written by the priesthood of the Essenes, the Zadokite priests in Jerusalem, or some other ancient Jewish sect has not been determined with certainty.
Among the scrolls discovered was a most intriguing scroll made of thin sheets of copper found in cave number three. Translations of the ancient Hebrew text revealed the copper scroll was a treasure map revealing where valuable treasure was buried. The treasure of the copper scrolls has been assumed to be the treasure of the Jewish Temple, presumably the Second Temple, among other options. One theory says that the treasures could be that of the First Temple, built by King Solomon and later destroyed by King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon in 586 BC, with the scrolls having been left in a cave during the Babylonian Exile, possibly with a small community of caretakers who were precursors of the Dead Sea Scrolls community. There is mention in the scroll of the “House of Hakkoz”, with the family of Hakkoz being treasurers of the rebuilt Temple, following the return from Babylon, as listed in the Biblical Books of Ezra and Nehemiah.
Following the map inscribed on the ancient copper scroll an archaeological team began excavation in the Qumran area. In April of 1988 a small juglet was discovered containing a very thick liquid believed to be the Holy Anointing Oil of the Temple. Intensive testing by the Pharmaceutical Department of Hebrew University, financed by the Vendyl Jones Research Institute, allegedly verified that the substance inside the small juglet was indeed the ancient Holy Anointing Oil. On February 15, 1989, the New York Times newspaper broke the news of the discovery to the public. During the ensuing few weeks, major networks such as ABC, CBS, NBC and CNN, carried the story on national and international television. In October, 1989, National Geographic Magazine featured the find, followed by Omni Magazine in December of the same year. Countless other news sources carried the story. The VJRI stated, “The finding of the oil was important for two reasons. It is the first item to be found from the First Temple period and is one of the items listed among the treasures in the Copper Scroll.” They added that“the oil was used as the fragrance on the oblation for a sweet smelling savor on the sacrifices. It was also used as the Holy Anointing Oil for the priest, prophets and kings.” It has been variously referred to as the Holy Anointing Oil, Shemen Afarshimon, or Shemen HaMishchah. Jones wrote that “the Holy Anointing Oil was made by Moses himself and was for all generations to come. Moses made 24 juglets of the Holy Anointing Oil . . . this twenty-second juglet was used for 844 years . . . less than a third of the juglet was used. This is the juglet of the Holy Anointing Oil that our team found in 1988. Since that juglet was made by Moses himself, it is the item of earliest antiquity in Israel.”
The Jerusalem Juglet
An ancient glass anointing juglet was discovered in Israel, found in excavations of the Jewish Quarter in the Old City of Jerusalem in the early part of the century. The glass juglet was a hand blown piece believed to have been crafted by a Judean artisan. It appeared to be created in the typical style of the Roman Empire, but could easily fit anywhere within the period of 37 BC to 100 AD. Authenticated by scholars and archeologists, as well as groups such as the IAA and members of the Archaeological and Anthropological Society of Victoria and the Numismatic Association of America, it eventually ended up being transported from a gallery in Jerusalem, Israel to a gallery in Australia. It was advertised as “Ancient Roman glass anointing juglet discovered in the Holy Land.” The olive colored bottle was intact with a very small loss on the pouring spout. A second angled dispensing spout projected from the body. Vessels of this type were used for dispensing oils and other liquids in small controlled quantities – in religious, priestly functions – sacrificing, anointing, purifying, etc. It measured 104mm (H) x 72mm (W). What seemed to be mineral deposits lined the inside of the glass juglet. Subsequent tests allegedly revealed that the deposits within the juglet were indeed the aged remains of the Holy Anointing Oil of Exodus 30. The juglet remains in the gallery in Australia.
Other Alleged Finds
“The Messianic Holy Anointing Oil vial” was discovered by an elderly monk living as a hermit in the Old City of Jerusalem in the 1960s, excavating inside an ancient grotto located in the immediate vicinity of the Upper Room on Mount Zion. Fischer says that at least two of the objects were obvious ceremonial pieces which may have been used by James the Just, the brother of Jesus. A stone that is believed to be the base for the vial is a brick-sized block of well-worn local marble. This block bears an ancient Aramaic inscription that reads “La Shemen Ruehon” or “For the Oil of the Spirit.”  The ancient vial is believed to contain residues of the Holy Anointing Oil but these residues have not been allowed for testing. Another find, “The Juglet of Hebron,” an ancient black anointing oil juglet, was discovered in an archeological excavation in the ancient city of Hebron in the early part of the century. It was dated between 1000 to 800 BC. Authenticated by archeologists as well as members of the Archaeological Institute of America, the juglet was sold from Israel to a private collector in the United States. A faint but detectable image of a Hebrew letter etched on the outside of the juglet reportedly authenticates it’s ritual use. The tested residues in the juglet are allegedly residues of the Holy Anointing Oil. Another juglet from Israel was discovered in an archeological excavation and purportedly contained residues of the Holy Anointing Oil but as yet results are not conclusive. Muslim excavations on the Temple Mount resulted in the discovery by archaeologists of artifacts from the 10th century (the reigns of King David and King Solomon) as well as from the Hasmonean, Herodian, and the Second Temple period. The base of a juglet used as a container for olive oil was discovered. A cave discovered in Kibbutz, Israel, outside of Jerusalem, is believed by some to be the place used by John the Baptist for baptismal purposes. Around 250,000 pottery shards, remnants believed for ritual use, were discovered in the cave. A stone inside had a small depression which is said to have contained anointing oil for ritual cleansing. In another discovery an ivory pomegranate, believed to be from Solomon’s Temple, bears the inscription; “[Belonging] to the Temple of [Yahwe]h, consecrated to the priests.” Although the pomegranate itself is admittedly genuine, Professor Yuval Goren of Tel Aviv University believed that the inscription was a forgery because three critical letters adjacent to an ancient break seemed to stop too conveniently before reaching the break. Professor Yitzhak Roman of the Hebrew University examined the artifact under a scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and concluded the inscription was authentic. His examination showed that the three critical letters, contrary to Goren’s finding, did in fact go into the ancient break. This was the same conclusion reached by an examination at the Israeli Museum sponsored by the Biblical Archaeological Society May 3, 2007 ; “The three letters clearly go into the break.” In addition Professor Roman examined the patina of the surviving letters of the inscription and concluded they were genuine.  The inscription “Belonging to the Temple of Yahweh, consecrated to the priests” seems to indicate this was an anointing artifact. To date it has not been tested for residue of the Holy Anointing Oil.
The Armenian Church
The Holy Anointing Oil of the Armenian Church is called the Holy Muron. The church holds a special reverence for the continuity factor of the oil. According to tradition, a portion of the Holy Anointing Oil of Exodus 30, which Moses and Aaron had blessed, still remained in Jesus’ time. Jesus Christ blessed this oil and then gave some of it to Thaddeus, who took the holy oil to Armenia and healed King Abkar of a terrible skin disease by anointing him with the holy oil. Saint Thaddeus is said to have buried a bottle of the Holy Anointing Oil in Daron under an evergreen tree. Saint Gregory the Illuminator discovered the hidden treasure and mixed it with muron that he had blessed. It is said that “To this day, whenever a new batch of muron is prepared and blessed, a few drops of the old one go into it, so that the Armenian muron always contains a small amount of the original oil blessed by Moses, Jesus Christ, and Gregory the Illuminator.” The Holy Muron is composed of olive oil and forty-eight aromas and flowers. The remaining portion of the previous blessed holy oil is poured into the newly prepared oil during the blessing ceremony and passes the blessing from generation to generation. It is said that this very procedure has been followed for nearly 1700 years. The Catholicos of all Armenians in Etchmiadzin combines a new mixture of Holy Muron in the cauldron every seven years using a portion of the holy muron from the previous blend. This sweet-scented holy oil is stirred with what is said to be the tip of the lance driven through Jesus’ side and a fragment of the true cross.[44a] This is distributed to all of the Armenian churches throughout the world. Before Christianity, Muron was reserved solely for the enthroning of royalty and for very special events. In later years, it was used with extreme unction and to heal the sick, and to anoint ordained clergy. 
The Assyrian Church of the East
It is said by the Assryian Church that the Holy Anointing Oil “was given and handed down to us by our holy fathers Mar Addai and Mar Mari and Mar Tuma.” The Holy Anointing Oil of the Assyrian Church is variously referred to as the Oil of the Holy Horn, the Oil of the Qarna, or the Oil of Unction. This holy oil is an apostolical tradition, believed to have originated from the oil consecrated by the Apostles themselves, and which by succession has been handed down in the Church to this day.  The original oil which the deciples blessed began to run low and more oil was added to it. This has alledgedly continued to this very day with new oil being added as the oil level lowers. This succession of holy oil is believed to be a continuity of the blessings placed upon the oil from the beginning.
Both the Oil of Unction and the Holy Leaven are referred to as “leaven” although there is no actual leavening agent, so the nomenclature Holy Leaven seems to be a bit misleading. Yohanan bar Abgareh referred to it in 905 as did Shlemon d-Basra in the 13th Century. Yohanan bar Zo’bee in the 14thCentury integrated the Holy Oil of unction with baptism and other rites. Isaaq Eshbadhnaya in the 15thCentury wrote the Scholion which is a commentary on specific theological topics. It tells us that that John the Baptist gave John the Evangelist a baptismal vessel of water from Christ’s baptism, which was collected by John the Baptist from water dripping from Christ after his baptism in Jordan River. Jesus gave each disciple a “loaf,” at the Last Supper, but the Scholion informs us that to John he gave two with the instructions to eat only one and to save the other. At the crucifixion John collected the water from the Lord’s side in the vessel and the blood he collected on the loaf from the Last Supper. After the descent of the Holy Spirit on Pentecost the disciples took the vessel and mixed it with oil and each took a horn of it. The loaf they ground up and added flour and salt to it. Each took a portion of the holy oil and the holy bread which were distributed in every land by the hand of those who missionized there. 
The Assyrian Church has two types of holy oils; the one is ordinary olive oil, blessed or not blessed, the other is the oil of the Holy Horn which is believed to have been handed down from the Apostles. The Holy Horn is constantly renewed by the addition of oil blessed by a bishop on Maundy Thursday. While most anyone can by tradition be anointed with the regular oil, the oil of the Holy Horn is restricted for ordination and sanctification purposes.
The Coptic Church
The Holy Anointing oil of the Coptic Church is referred to as the Holy Myron.
The laying of hands for the dwelling of the Holy Spirit is believed to have been a specific rite of the Apostles and their successors the Bishops, and as the regions of mission increased, consequently numbers of Christian believers and converts increased. It was not possible for the Apostles to wander through all the countries and cities to lay hands on all of those baptized, so they established anointment by the Holy Myron as an alternative, it is believed, for the laying on of the hands for the Holy Spirit’s indwelling.
The first who made the Myron were the Apostles who had kept the fragrant oils which were on the body of Jesus Christ during his burial, and they added the spices which were brought by those women who prepared them to anoint Christ, but had discovered he had resurrected. They melted all these spices in pure olive oil, prayed on it in the Upper Room in Zion and made it a Holy Anointing Oil. Today the Coptic Church uses it for ordination, in the Sanctification of Baptismal water, ordination of Churches, and church altars and vessels. They decided that their successors the Bishops, must renew the making of the Myron whenever it is close to dimishing, by incorporating the original oil with the new.
It is said that when St. Mark went to Alexandria, he took with him some of the Holy Myron oil made by the Apostles and that he used it in the Sacrament of Chrism, as well as the Patriarchs who succeeded him. This continued until the era of Athanasius the Apostolic – the 20th Patriarch, who then decided to remake the Myron in Alexandria. Hence, it is reported, he prepared all of the needed perfumes and spices, with pure olive oil, from which God ordered Moses to make the Holy Anointing Oil as specified in the recipe in the thirtieth chapter of the book of Exodus. Then the sanctification of the Holy Myron was fulfilled in Alexandria, and Athanasius was entrusted with the holy oil (leaven), which contained spices which touched the Lord’s body whilst in the tomb, as well as the original oil which had been prepared by the Apostles and brought to Egypt by St. Mark. He distributed the oil to the churches abroad : to the See of Rome, Antioch and Constantinople, together with a document of its authenticity, and all of the patriarchs are said to have rejoiced in receiving it. The Coptic Church informs that he Fathers of the Church and scholars like St. Justin Martyr, Tertullian, St. Hippolytus, Origen, St. Ambrose, and St. Cyril of Jerusalem, spoke about the Holy Myron and how they received its use in anointing by tradition. For example, St. Hippolytus in his Apostolic Tradition, speaks of the holy oil “according to ancient custom”  Origen writes about the holy oil “according to the tradition of the church”  St. Cyril of Jerusalem goes into further detail in speaking about the grace of the Holy Spirit in the Holy Myron: “this oil is not just any oil after the epiclesis of the Spirit, it becomes charism of Christ and power of the Holy Spirit through the presence of the deity” 
The early fathers and scholars mention the use of the Holy Myron, as well as a documentation by Abu l-Barakat Ibn Kabar, a 14th century Coptic priest and scholar, in his book Misbah az-Zulmah fi idah al-khidmah (The Lamp of Darkness in Clarifying the Service). According to his account, the holy apostles took from the spices that were used to anoint the body of our Lord Jesus Christ when he was buried , added pure olive oil to it, and prayed over it in Upper Zion, the first church where the Holy Spirit fell in the upper room.
This holy oil was then distributed amongst all of the apostles so that wherever they preached, new converts would be anointed with it as a seal. They also commanded that whenever a new batch of Holy Myron was made, that they add to it the old Holy Myron to keep the first Holy Myron continually with all that would ever be made afterwards.
The Saint Thomas Christians
The general consensus of opinion among scholars is that St. Thomas laid the original foundation for Christianity in India. It is reported that Jewish communities which were already present in India were the contributing factors which enticed Thomas on his missionary journey there. It is said that he brought the Holy Anointing Oil with him and that the St. Thomas Christians still have this oil to this day.
Patriarch Ya`qub, of the Syrian Malabar Narani Church, is fondly remembered for his spiritually uplifting celebration of the liturgy and his humble encouragement to accept the simple way of life. After he consecrated sacred myron in the Mor Gabriel monastery in 1964, holy myron reportedly flowed from the glass container the following day and many people were said to have been healed by it.
Ramban, the Septuagint, Nachmanides, Saadya Gaon and Ibn Janach all identify the calamus of the Old Testament as sweet calamus, Acorus calamus. Most biblical authorities and commentaters also identify the keneh bosem as the cane balsam  of the plant variously referred to as sweet cane, sweet flag, or calamus.
By Dr. Curtis D. Ward
- ^ Exodus 30:29
- ^ Exodus 30:33
- ^ Ex. 30:32a
- ^ Ex.30:32b
- ^“Exodus 30:23-25 – Passage Lookup – King James Version”. BibleGateway.com. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Exodus%2030:23-25&version=KJV. Retrieved 2010-08-18.
- ^ Commentary on the Bible, by Adam Clarke
- ^ Exodus|30:26 30:26
- ^ A. Corbin, Le Miasme et la jonquille. L’odorat et l’imaginaire social , 18e-19e siecles (Paris 1982)
- ^ On the Function of the Holy Incense (Exodus XXX 34-8) and the Sacred Anointing Oil (Exodus XXX 22-33) C Houtman – Vetus Testamentum, 1992
- ^ M.C.A. Korpel, A Rift in the Clouds, Ugaritic and Hebrew Descriptions of the Divine (Munster , 1990), pp. 99,105, 142, 419.
- ^ The Spiritual Significance of the Qetoret [Incense] in Ancient Jewish Tradition, Rabbi Avraham Sutton
- ^ The Red Heifer, The Original Ashes, The Temple Institute
- ^ Pharisees and the Sadducees: Rethinking Their Respective Outlooks on Jewish Law, GR Knight – BYU L. Rev., 1993 – HeinOnline
- ^ The end of days: fundamentalism and the struggle for the Temple Mount, By Gershom Gorenberg
- ^ The strange search for the ashes of the Red Heifer DC Browning – The Biblical archaeologist, 1996 – cat.inist.fr
- ^http://www.chewonthatblog.com/2009/06/02/how-to-make-challah/ and http://www.thechallahblog.com/2012/08/rustic-sourdough-challah.html
- ^ Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East, Commission on Inter-Church Relations and Education Development, Fifth PRO ORIENTE, Non-official Consultation on Dialogue within the Churches of the Syriac Tradition: “Sacraments in the Syriac Tradition — Part II”, 26th February to 1st March 2002; Vienna (Austria),The Sacrament of the Holy Leaven “Malka” and the Holy Oil
- ^ Shmos 30:31
- ^ Jones,ThD, Professor Vendyl, Researcher 17, March 2004
- ^ VanderKam, James C., The Dead Sea Scrolls Today
- ^ Copper Scroll Studies, By George J. Brooke, Philip R. Davies
- ^ Jones,ThD, Professor Vendyl, Researcher 17, March 2004
- ^ The Wonders of Ancient Glass at the Israel Museum, Jerusalem, by Yael Israeli, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, 1998
- ^ Archeology Pty Ltd
- ^ Israel Today, News About Israel, Ludwig Schneider, 1990
- ^ The Messianic Seal of the Jerusalem Church, by Bob Fischer and Reuven Schalz, Olim Publications
- ^ The Messianic Seal of the Jerusalem Church, by Bob Fischer and Reuven Schalz, Olim Publications
- ^ Evangelical Press News Service, July, 6, 1999
- ^ The Archaeological Institute of America, A1 A.A>, 2005
- ^ Shragai, Temple Mount Dirt Uncovers First Temple Artifacts, 19.10.06
- ^ National Geographic News, Solomon’s Temple Artifacts Found by Muslim Workers, mati Milstein, Tel Aviv, Israel, October, 23, 2007
- ^ Gibson, Shimon, The Cave of John the Baptist, 2005
- ^ Leading Israeli Scientist Declares Pomegranate Inscription Authentic, Biblical Archaeological Review, December 16, 2008
- ^ Abrahamian, Nyree, The blessing of the Muron: Behind the ritual
- The Armenian Reporter, “The Blessing of the Muron: Behind the ritual,” Nyree Abrahamian, 9/23/2008, ^http://www.reporter.am/go/article/2008-09-23-the-blessing-of-the-muron-behind-the-ritual 44a.—— Los Angeles Times, “Armenian Priests Journey for Jars of Holy Oil,” Luis Sahagun, 10/11/2008. http://articles.latimes.com/2008/oct/11/local/me-beliefs11
- ^ Armenian Heritage, The Blessing of the Holy Muron
- ^ Catholic ecycl
- ^ MacLean & Browne, The Catholicos of the East and his People, Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1892. pages 247 & 248.
- ^ Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East , Commission on Inter-Church Relations and Education Development , Fifth PRO ORIENTE Non-official Consultation on Dialogue within the Churches of the Syriac Tradition: “Sacraments in the Syriac Tradition — Part II”, 26th February to 1st March 2002; Vienna (Austria), The Sacrament of the Holy Leaven “Malka” and the Holy Oil
- ^ quoted in Berardino, Encyclopedia of the Early Church, v. 1, p. 190
- ^ in Rom. Comm. V, 8; quoted in Berardino, ibid.
- ^ Cat. 21, 3; quoted in Berardino, ibid.
- ^ cf. John 19:38-40
- ^ Burmester, O.H.E., The Egyptian or Coptic Church, A Detailed Description of Her Liturgical Services and the Rites and Ceremonies Observed in the Administration of Her Sacraments, Cairo, 1967
- ^ Abu l-Barakat Ibn Kabar, Misbah az-Zulmah fi idah al-khidmah, Cairo, 1971
- ^ Berardino, Angelo di, Encyclopedia of the Early Church, translated by Walford, A. Cambridge 1992
- ^ Sawirus ibn al-Muqaffa, Tartib al-kahanut, manuscript.
- ^“Ki Tisa”. Bible.ort.org. http://bible.ort.org/books/torahd5.asp?action=displayid&id=2403. Retrieved 2010-08-18.
- ^“Exodus 30:23 Take thou also unto thee principal spices, of pure myrrh five hundred shekels, and of sweet cinnamon half so much, even two hundred and fifty shekels, and of sweet calamus two hundred and fifty shekels”. Scripturetext.com. http://scripturetext.com/exodus/30-23.htm. Retrieved 2010-08-18.
WARNING: The Holy Anointing oil should be used ON CHRISTIANS ONLY. According to Exodus 30 the Holy Anointing Oil is not to be used on the common person, but it was only to be used on God’s chosen people, specifically the priestly lineage. In the New Testament it speaks of God’s Church saying, “But ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people; that ye should shew forth the praises of him who hath called you out of darkness into his marvellous light.” I Peter 2:9. As a royal priesthood and as a holy nation, Christians may be anointed by the Holy Anointing Oil. It is Biblically prohibited to be used on or by the unregenerated.
Holy Anointing Oil made by a Rabbi of Cohanim descent (lineage of Aaron and Moses) may be purchased here: http://www.messianica.org/Oil.htm